The killing of Khashoggi, a Washington Post columnist, has strained Riyadh's relations with the West and battered bin Salman's image overseas.
She did not question the authenticity of the transcripts, which included Macron saying to the prince, "You never listen to me", "Because I told you." and "I am a man of my word".
The young Saudi prince's political future is still being haunted by the consequences of the gruesome murder of dissident Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul some two months ago.
The content of the gruesome tape - a key piece of evidence in the murder allegedly ordered by United States ally Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman - was distributed by Turkey after Khashoggi was killed inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on 2 October.
As the world leaders walked past the Saudi crown prince, out popped Putin who greeted him enthusiastically at the opening of the summit in Buenos Aires.
Theresa May used a meeting with the Saudi Crown Prince at the G20 summit to "encourage" him to make sure Saudi Arabia co-operates in the investigation into murdered journalist Jamal Khashoggi. "No I will listen of course", bin Salman said in English, then bursting into a laugh.
In a video posted by the Saudi Gazette newspaper the two leaders can be seen speaking in hushed tones with their heads close together.
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It says Mr Macron told MBS that Europeans wanted worldwide investigators to take part in the probe on Mr Khashoggi's death and stressed "the necessity of a political solution in Yemen".
After repeated denials of any knowledge about Khashoggi's disappearance, Saudi Arabia finally admitted the 59-year-old had been murdered at the mission in a "rogue" operation.
The US Senate nonetheless moved this week to end support for the Saudi-led war against rebels in Yemen amid outrage over attacks on civilian sites including a school bus and hospitals.
There were also warm handshakes for the crown prince from President Trump and his daughter Ivanka on the first day of a summit where some had hoped he would be treated as a pariah.
A White House official confirmed the two exchanged pleasantries during a leaders' session.
US President Donald Trump said before the summit in a statement that he was unconcerned with whether Prince Mohammed was involved in Khashoggi's death, naming business ties with Saudi Arabia and its hostility to Iran as his priorities.
The two will likely find common ground in that the Russian leader has also been put under increasing pressure from Western countries in recent days.