"We can not let this happen to reporters, to anybody". "We're demanding everything", Mr Trump said when asked if he was demanding information from the Saudis.
"It's a very sad situation, this is a bad situation", Trump said.
The US has been criticised for not speaking out quickly enough on Khashoggi's case. "We want to get to the bottom of it".
"I don't want to hurt jobs", he said.
On Wednesday, Corker told reporters that the Senate would "take some action ourselves" over Khashoggi's disappearance.
Meanwhile Turkish investigators have claimed that a consular source heard screams and sounds of struggle, obviously while Khashoggi was facing the death squad.
In an op-ed published in The Post on Tuesday, Khashoggi's fiancée implored Trump and the first lady to become involved in the search for answers. "It's a very serious situation for us and for this White House".
Trump, who took his first overseas trip as US president to the kingdom and whose son-in-law Jared Kushner has close ties to Prince Mohammed, said Tuesday he had not yet talked to the Saudis about Khashoggi, "but I will be at some point", without elaborating. The Saudi government has dismissed that allegation. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo also spoke with the crown prince "to reiterate the United States' request for information", Sanders said. "We demand to know the truth", Ryan said in a statement. Mr Dosari said he met Mr Mutreb several times for coffee and in restaurants and believed he was tasked with tracking Saudis living in the UK.
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Rep. Gerry Connelly, in a WaPo video, called Khashoggi's disappearance "one of the most profoundly disturbing developments in global diplomacy" and has called for a full investigation. But in failing to call [Saudi Crown Prince] MBS out on just about anything, particularly repression at home, Trump Administration has emboldened him and given him [the] sense he can do anything, ' he wrote.
The Saudi embassies in the United Kingdom and USA did not immediately respond to MEE's request for comment.
Republican Sen. Bob Corker, who as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee has reviewed the USA intelligence into what happened to Khashoggi, said "the likelihood is he was killed on the day he walked into the consulate".
In his last interview three days before his disappearance, Khashoggi said that he did not think he would return to Saudi Arabia.
Turkish officials say he was killed by Saudi agents during the visit. As a columnist for the Post, Khashoggi was a frequent critic of the Saudi regime. The Turkish newspaper Hurriyet also published the image.
Turkey's Daily Sabah newspaper released the names of the suspects who supposedly arrived on two private jets and stayed at two hotels close to the consulate awaiting Khashoggi.
Among the assassination team was a forensic expert who brought a bone saw to dismember Khashoggi's body after killing him, the Times reported on Tuesday, citing an unidentified "senior official" as saying.
As a contributor to the Post, Khashoggi has written extensively about Saudi Arabia, including criticism of its war in Yemen, its recent diplomatic spat with Canada and its arrest of women's rights activists after the lifting of a ban on women driving.