The plane, which had 166 passengers on board and five crew members, had to turn around after the pilot reportedly forgot to maintain cabin pressure.
Indian aviation regulator - Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) confirmed that the incident was caused by an error by the flight crew.
The airline later arranged an alternate flight for the 144 passengers to travel onward to Jaipur.
Oxygen bags deployed from above the seats.
"As a result, oxygen masks were deployed".
"Flt return back to Mumbai after 45 mts". One, Satish Nair, said on Twitter that the plane "lost pressure immediately after taking off", and that no staff were available to help passengers and there was no announcement to wear oxygen masks.
Rapid decreases in air pressure cause air inside the middle ear and sinuses to escape the body in an attempt to equalise with the surrounding environment - usually experienced as a popping sensation.
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Several passengers complained of severe headache and stinging pain in the ears.
The flight No. 9W 0697 landed back in Mumbai within 30 minutes of taking off after 30 of the 166 passengers on board started bleeding and complained of headaches.
In January, Jet Airways grounded two pilots following reports of a fight inside the cockpit of a flight from London to Mumbai.
A passenger, who was in the flight, recalled a fellow passenger with bleeding nose. But you can at least count on the cabin crew to ensure the plane and the passengers are under safe control.
One middle-aged male passenger was brought to the Dr Balabhai Nanavati Hospital in suburban Vile Parle by Jet Airways officials.
After we took off the AC malfunctioned, then air pressure system malfunctioned too&oxygen masks came out.
Passengers on board took to social media to share their shocking experience and frustration.
The airline said five people were taken to hospital for treatment and have since been released.