Four sword-wielding assailants were shot dead with another nabbed, and one police officer was killed in the attack, National Police Spokesman Inspector General Setyo Wasisto said.
The group began the assault by ramming a auto into the police headquarters in the town of Pekanbaru in Riau province.
Two officers were wounded while another was killed after one of the perpetrators tried to escape and crashed into the officer, he said.
At least one journalist and two police officers were reportedly injured in the alleged attack.
Mr Wasisto said a journalist who had been at the police station was also hurt after being hit by the auto. Police found the van not far from the location of the attack and searched it for possible explosive materials.
Local media said one attacker may have had a bomb strapped to his body but police have not confirmed the reports.
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The men had driven their vehicle into the police yard before getting out to stage the attack, Setyo Wasisto, national police spokesman, told a briefing.
The attack comes after a series of suicide bombings by Islamist militants targeting churches and a police building in Indonesia's second-biggest of city of Surabaya over the past few days.
Its worst-ever attack was the 2002 Bali bombings that killed more than 200 people, including locals and foreign tourists.
Then on Monday in Surabaya, a family of five targeted a police station - four of them were killed but an eight-year-old girl survived. "Suddenly people wearing masks got out and stabbed police officers at the scene", said Doddy Vladimir, Tribun Pekanbaru reporter.
The Islamic State (IS) group has claimed the attack via its news outlet.
The church bombing family were in the same religious study group as the two other families linked to the attacks, police said.