It is Bin Salman's first visit overseas since he became crown prince in June of previous year.
The Egyptian parliament debated and approved the handover in June a year ago, with President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi ratifying it a week later.
Mohammed bin Salman, 33, was greeted by Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as he disembarked from the plane on Sunday.
Egypt supports the kingdom in a war against Yemen, aimed at regaining power to Saudi ally, resigned Abd Rabbu Mansur Hadi, also, Egypt joined a trade and diplomatic boycott of Qatar previous year.
Shortly after the reception ceremony, El-Sisi and Bin Salman held a bilateral summit at the Ittihadeya Presidential Palace in Cairo.
As Egypt tries to keep a lid on any internal unrest, it has sided firmly with Saudi Arabia on key foreign policy issues including the face-off between the Kingdom and its foe Iran.
Neymar is a big doubt for World Cup claims Brazil team doctor
But he understands that there is no option now other than to recuperate and dedicate himself to recuperating, so he can be good as soon as possible.
For his part, the Saudi Crown Prince, Minister of Defence and First Deputy Prime Minister Bin Salman extended to Sisi the greetings of Saudi King Salman bin Abdul-Aziz.
The meeting touched on ways to enhance various aspects of the two countries' relations, primarily economic and investment cooperation.
After his visit to Egypt, Bin Salman will head to the United Kingdom on 7 March and to the United States on 19 March.
They also agreed on solving the regional crises by political means.
They also agreed on continuing to work together to counter regional interventions and attempts to sow division and rifts among the region's countries.
Sisi said the security of Gulf countries is closely related to Egypt's national security.