It asserts that Russian strategy and doctrine emphasize the potential coercive and military uses of nuclear weapons, and calls for two new US capabilities in response - a sea-launched nuclear cruise missile and a "low-yield" warhead for submarine-launched ballistic missiles.
The NPR posits that the Russians place a premium of nuclear weapons due to Moscow's "de-escalation" doctrine, which is why the administration is seeking to build new types of American non-strategic nuclear arms.
For the first time since 1945, America is considering the use of first-strike nuclear weapons.
On Iran, the review said the main goal was to prevent Tehran from developing nuclear weapons.
The US is "shamelessly threatening Russian Federation with an atomic weapon", according to Iran's President Hassan Rouhani.
Rouhani's remarks were echoed by Iran's Foreign Minister Javad Zarif who said the US' policy was taking the world close to "annihilation".
The 2018 edition of the Nuclear Posture Review "reflects greater reliance on nukes" violating worldwide agreements on non-proliferation, he went on, noting that "no wonder the Doomsday Clock is at its most risky since 1953." .
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What exactly is the new United States policy?
Russia's Foreign Ministry said in a statement on Saturday that Washington is simply seeking to justify its policy aimed at lowering the nuclear threshold by accusing Russian Federation of an alleged "aggressive strategy".
"Our long-term aim must continue to be a world without nuclear weapons", Gabriel said - the stated aim of U.S. nuclear policy under Barack Obama.
The Pentagon's nuclear review concluded that while arms control can advance American interests, "further progress is hard to envision", in light of what the USA considers Russia's aggression in Ukraine and violations of existing arms deals. It specifically points to a Russian doctrine known as "escalate to de-escalate", in which Moscow would use or threaten to use smaller-yield nuclear weapons in a limited, conventional conflict in Europe in the belief that doing so would compel the US and North Atlantic Treaty Organisation to back down.
The hawkish paper, consistent with the previously released National Security Strategy and the National Defense Strategy, painted a bleak picture for USA security, and called for more dominant role for nuclear weapons in its arsenal.
The issue has been rediscovered by politicians in the wake of Trump's election. "Trump's obduracy in killing the #JCPOA stems from the same risky imprudence", wrote Zarif, who was the chief negotiator in the discussions between Iran and global powers.